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/1 3’D 1839 A?2??/’F A1’F3H? Edmond Becquerel EB’DG ‘? ’2 E7’D9’* .H/ /1 2E?FG A*HHD*’&?? 1’ (’ (’*1? *1 (Wet Cell) ’1’&G FEH/. ’H E4’G/G FEH/ HD*’? (’*1? HB*? ?G 5A-’* FB1G ‘? ”F *-* *’(4 FH1 .H14?/ B1’1 E? ??1F/  ’A2’?4 E? ?’(/.
/1 3@’D ???? Charles Edgar Fritts ?G ?? EGF/3 (1B ’GD F?H?H1? (H/  ??  HYPERLINK “http://fa.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D8%B3%D9%84%D9%88%D9%84_%D8%AE%D9%80%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%B4%D9%80%DB%8C%D8%AF%DB%8C&action=edit&redlink=1&preload=%D8%A7%D9%84%DA%AF%D9%88:%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87/%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%E2%80%8C%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%AF%DB%8C&editintro=%D8%A7%D9%84%DA%AF%D9%88:%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87/%D8%A7%D8%AF%DB%8C%D8%AA%E2%80%8C%D9%86%D9%88%D8%AA%DB%8C%D8%B3&summary=%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF+%DB%8C%DA%A9+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87+%D9%86%D9%88+%D8%A7%D8%B2+%D8%B7%D8%B1%DB%8C%D9%82+%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF%DA%AF%D8%B1&nosummary=&prefix=&minor=&create=%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%B3%D8%AA+%DA%A9%D8%B1%D8%AF%D9%86+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87+%D8%AC%D8%AF%DB%8C%D8%AF” \o “3DHD .@H14@?/? (5A-G H,H/ F/’1/)” 3DHD .@H14@?/? 3DF?HE? 3’.* ?G ’2 (1.@? ,G’* 4@(@?G (G  HYPERLINK ”http://fa.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D8%B3%D9%80%D9%84%D9%80%D9%88%D9%84%D9%80%D9%87%D8%A7%DB%8C_%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%B1%D8%B4%D9%80%DB%8C%D9%80%D8%AF%DB%8C&action=edit&redlink=1&preload=%D8%A7%D9%84%DA%AF%D9%88:%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87/%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%AE%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%86%E2%80%8C%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%AF%DB%8C&editintro=%D8%A7%D9%84%DA%AF%D9%88:%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87/%D8%A7%D8%AF%DB%8C%D8%AA%E2%80%8C%D9%86%D9%88%D8%AA%DB%8C%D8%B3&summary=%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF+%DB%8C%DA%A9+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87+%D9%86%D9%88+%D8%A7%D8%B2+%D8%B7%D8%B1%DB%8C%D9%82+%D8%A7%DB%8C%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%AF%DA%AF%D8%B1&nosummary=&prefix=&minor=&create=%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%B3%D8%AA+%DA%A9%D8%B1%D8%AF%D9%86+%D9%85%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87+%D8%AC%D8%AF%DB%8C%D8%AF” \o ”3@D@HD@G’? .H14@?@/? (5A-G H,H/ F/’1/)” 3@D@HD@G’? .H14@?@/? 3?D??HF? ’E1H2? (H/. ’?F 3@@D@HD ’2 ?? H?@A@1 F’2? 3@DF?HE *4@??@D 4/G (@H/ ?G (’ ?? *@H1? ’2 3@?@EG@’? .?@D? F’2? 7@D’ H ?? H1B -A’8@*? ’2 4@?4G ~H4’F/G 4/G (H/. ’E’ 3@DHD 3@’.* ’H .@?D? ?E 1’F/E’F (H/. 1’F/E’F ?? 3@DHD .H14?/? 9(’1* ’2 /15/? ’2 ’F1?? .H14?/? *’(?/G (G 37- ”F E? (’4/ ?G (G ’F1?? ’D?*1??? *(/?D 4/G (’4/. ?E*1 ’2 1% ’F1?? .H14?/? *’(?/G 4/G (G 37- ’?F 3DHD ’(*/’?? (G ’D?*1?3?*G *(/?D E? 4/. (’ H,H/ ’?F  3DHD G’? 3DF?HE? 31’F,’E /1 FH13F, G’? 9?’3? (G 7H1 H3?9? (?’1 ?1A*G 4/.
/1 3’D 1887  GF1?F G1*2 /1 7? E7’D9’* .H/ E*H,G 4/ ?G FH1 E’H1’! (FA4 -/’BD HD*’? D’2E (1’? ’J,’/ ,1BG (1’? ~14 (JF /H ’D?*1H/ AD2? 1’ *:JJ1 E? /G/. AGE ?’ED H EA5D*1 ’2 BH’FJF ’3’3? 3DHDG’? .H14J/? /1 3’D 1905 *H37 Einstein H /1 3’D 1930 *H37 Schottky (H,H/ ”E/. 3DHDG’? .H14J/? ’2 ’H’37 1950 EH,H/ (H/. ’HDJF 3DHD .H14J/? 3JDJ?HF? (’ 1’F/E’F -/H/ 6% (’ FH1 E3*BJE *H37 Daryl Chapin Gerald Pearson H Calvin Fuller /1 3’D 1954 (H,H/ ”E/ ?G ’(*/’ (1’? ?’1(1/G’? E’GH’1GG’? A6’J? EH1/ ’3*A’/G B1’1 ?1A*. ’D(*G (1.? ’.*1’9 3DHD .H14J/? 3JDJ?HF? (’ 1’F/E’F 2J1 1% 1’ ’HDJF (’1 /1 3’D 1941 (G Russell Ohl F3(* E? /GF/. 3J1 ~J41A* *-BJB’* ’F,’E 4/G (1 1H? 3DHDG’? .H14J/? (9/ ’2 EB’DG Einstein /1 2EJFG ’+1 A*H’D?*1J? (G 7H1 E.*51 /1 ,/HD 0JD ”E/G ’3*: (31(
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 EMBED Equation.DSMT4 
 QUOTE    EMBED Equation.DSMT4 
G2JFG J JC C4H1 (’ ’12J’(J *’(9 f *H37 E*:?1G’ ’?,’/ EJ4H/.
(3-4)  EMBED Equation.DSMT4 
/1 E3&DG 71’-J CF*1D CFF/G  (’ G/A /1 F81 ?1A*G 4/G  ’JF *’(9 (G 5H1* 2J1 .H’G/ (H/:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
CG /1 ”F MaxOvershoot E’C2JEE A1’,G4 H IAE ’F*?1’D B/1 E7DB .7’ 1’ ’1’&G E?/GF/. H w1 H w2 61’?( H2F? G3*F/ CG EJ2’F ’GEJ* G1 JC ’2 ’G/’A 1’ F4’F E?/G/. (F’(1’JF C’1J CG (1’J (/3* ”H1/F G2JFG JC C4H1 (/3*G ~’1’E*1G’J CF*1D CFF/G PID) (’J/ ’F,’E 4H/  ’JF ’3* CG G1 /3*G ’2 ’JF 61’J( (G 9FH’F CF*1DCFF/G /1 F81 ?1A*G 4/G H ~’3. ~DG 3J3*E (1’J ’JF CF*1D1 (/3* EJ”J/. /1 FG’J* (’ E-’3(G E’C2JEE A1’,G4 H ’F*?1’D B/1 E7DB .7’  E,EH9 ”FG’ (G 9FH’F G2JFG ’JF C4H1 (61’J( CF*1DCFF/G) E-’3(G EJ4H/. G/A ?’A*F (G*1JF C4H1 ((G*1JF /3*G 61’J( CF*1DCFF/G) ’3*. ’D?H1J*E E91AJ 4/G /1 ’JF FH4*’1  (’ *HDJ/ JC /3*G ’HDJG ’2 ’JF 61’J( H /3*G(F/J ”FG’ /1 B’D( ’E~1’7H1JG’ H ’9E’D 3J’3* ,0( ’2 71A ’3*9E’1?1’F (G 1HJ E3*9E1’* H GE?FJF (’ ’J,’/ 1B’(* ’3*9E’1J EJ’F ’E~1’7H1JG’ (G ,3*,HJ (G*1JF C4H1 EJ~1/’2/.
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 QUOTE    EMBED Equation.DSMT4 
CG /1 ”F (?4*1JF G2JFG EJ’F ’E~1J’DJ3*G’ H G2JFG F1E’DJ2G 4/G ’JF ’E~1J’DJ3* E?(’4/. G1 ’E~1J’DJ3*J CG /’1’? G2JFG (J4*1J Cn EJ(’4/ (’E~1J’DJ3* 69JA*1J (’4/)  /’1’J G2JFG F1E’DJ2G CE*1J .H’G/ (H/. (’ /’4*F G2JFG F1E’DJ2G  B/1* F3(J F1E’DJ2GJ G1 ’E~1J’DJ3*  (G 5H1* 2J1 E-’3(G 4/G H (1 E(F’J ”F  C4H1G’J E3*9E1G  (JF ’E~1J’D3J*G’ *B3JE EJ4HF/:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
’2 JC /J/ /J?1  B/1* F1E’DJ2G 4/G JC ’E~1J’DJ3*  F3(* E3*9E1’*J ’3* CG *H37 ”F ’E~1J’DJ3* ’/’1G EJ4H/. (F’(1’JF *9/’/ ’HDJGJ E3*9E1’* JC ’E~1J’DJ3* (1’(1 .H’G/ (H/ (’:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
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J JJJJJ&J(J0J2J6J8JBJDJJJLJTJVJlJnJ?J?J?J?J?J?J??®????????????????????????????????????????????????????????U#hh?hC ?CJ$OJQJZ?^JaJ&hh?hC ?CJ$OJQJZ?^JaJo(&hO^?hC ?5?CJOJQJ\?^JaJ,hO^?hC ?5?CJOJQJZ?\?^JaJo($hO^?hC ?5?CJZ?\?^JaJo(<'F,'E EJ?1A*. GE'F?HFG CG B(D'K FJ2 (J'F 4/  C4H1G'J '3*9E'1?1  (1'J 'A2'J4 FAH0 .H/  41H9 (G 'J,'/ 9E1'F 2J13'.*G'J -ED H FBD  *'3J3 /'F4?'G H ... C1/F/. (G 9FH'F E+'D C4H1G'JJ F8J1 'F?DJ3 H A1'F3G (' *9BJ( 3J'3* GE?HF3'2J /1 E3*9E1'* .H/ /1 AC1 'J,'/ H A1'F3G FH 'F?DJ3 FH /1 E3*9E1'* .HJ4 (H/F/. (' /1 F81 ?1A*F 4JHG FE'J4 JC C4H1 /1 -D E3D&G (GJFG3'2J  /1 -BJB* 'JF -CHE* E1C2J (' '9E'D 3J'3* ,0( 39J /'4* *' C4H1 E3*9E1G 1' /1 1'3*'J '(9'/ E.*DA ',*E'9J 3J'3J (G .H/ F2/JC CF/. 'JF (.4 '2 A1"JF/ '3*9E'1 /1 'D?H1J*E (GJFG3'2J  (G 5H1* -1C* E3*9E1'* (G 3E* C4H1 'E~1J'DJ3*  E/D 4/G '3*. 4CD 5-3  4E'J CDJ 'JF -1C* 1' F4'F EJ/G/.

4?D3-5: 4E’? ?D? -1?* E3*9E1’* (G 3E* ’E~1?’D?3*.
E7’(B ’JF 4CD C4H1 ’E~1J’DJ3*  C4H1 E3*9E1G 1’ /1 1’3*’J E-H1G’J A1GF? H 2(’F (G 3E* .H/ ,0( EJCF/. GE’F?HFG CG /1 ’JF 4CD F4’F /’/G 4/G ’3*  C4H1 E3*9E1G (Colony)  (G ’F/’2G x H’-/ /1 ,G* .7 H’5D E3*9E1G (G ’3*9E’1?1 (Imperialist)  -1C* C1/G H (G EHB9J* ,/J/ New Position of Colony))  C4’F/G EJ4H/. /1 ’JF 4CD  A’5DG EJ’F ’3*9E’1?1 H E3*9E1G (’ d F4’F /’/G 4/G ’3*. x FJ2 9//J *5’/AJ (’ *H2J9 JCFH’.* (H J’ G1 *H2J9 EF’3( /J?1) EJ(’4/. J9FJ (1’J x /’1JE:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4  QUOTE  
(113J *’1J.J ~/J/G GE?HF3’2J  JC -BJB* ”4C’1 /1 ’JF 2EJFG ’JF ’3* CG 9DJ 1:E ’JFCG C4H1G’J ’3*9E’1?1 (7H1 ,/J ~J?J1 3J’3* ,0( (H/F/  ’E’ HB’J9 (7H1 C’ED E7’(B 3J’3* ’9E’D 4/G ”FG’ ~J4 FEJ1A* H ’F-1’A’*J /1 F*J,G C’1 H,H/ /’4*. /1 ’D?H1J*E E91AJ 4/G  ’JF ’F-1’A ’-*E’DJ (’ ’A2H/F JC 2’HJG *5’/AJ (G E3J1 ,0( E3*9E1’*  ’F,’E EJ?J1/. (/JF EF8H1  /1 -1C* E3*9E1’* (G 3E* ’3*9E’1?1  CEJ 2’HJG *5’/AJ FJ2 (G ,G* -1C* E3*9E1G  ’6’AG EJCFJE. 4CD 4 -5 ’JF -’D* 1’ F4’F EJ/G/. (/JF EF8H1 ’JF(’1 (G ,’J -1C* (G ’F/’2G x  (G 3E* C4H1 ’3*9E’1?1 H /1 ,G* (1/’1 H’5D E3*9E1G (G ’3*9E’1?1  (G GE’F EJ2’F  HDJ (’ ’F-1’A ? /1 E3J1  (G -1C* .H/ ’/’EG EJ/GJE. ? 1’ (G 5H1* *5’/AJ H (’ *H2J9 JCFH’.* /1 F81 EJ?J1JE (’E’ G1 *H2J9 /D.H’G H EF’3( /J?1 FJ2 EJ*H’F/ ’3*A’/G 4H/). ~3:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
/1 ’JF 1’(7G  ? ~’1’E*1J /D.H’G EJ(’4/ CG ’A2’J4 ”F (’9+ ’A2’J4 ,3*,HJ ’71’A ’E~1J’DJ3* 4/G H C’G4 ”F FJ2 (’9+ EJ4H/ *’ E3*9E1’* *’ -/ EECF  (G (1/’1 H’5D E3*9E1G (G ’3*9E’1?1  F2/JC -1C* CFF/. (’ /1 F81 ?1A*F H’-/ 1’/J’F (1’J ?  9//J F2/JC (G ?/4  /1 ’C+1 ~J’/G3’2JG’  ’F*.’( EF’3(J (H/G ’3*.
3-4-3-,’(,’JJ EHB9J* E3*9E1G H ’E~1J’DJ3*
3J’3* ,0( /1 9JF F’(H/J 3’.*’1G’J ’,*E’9J 3J’3J C4H1 E3*9E1G /1 (96J EH’1/ F*’J, E+(*J 1’ FJ2 (1’J ”FG’ /1 ~J/’4*. (96J ’2 C4H1G’ /1 F*J,G ’9E’D ’JF 3J’3* (G FH9J ’2 .H/(’H1J 9EHEJ /3* J’A*F/ H ~3 ’2 E/*J GE’F *-5JD C1/G?’F ((G 9(’1* /J?1 ,0( 4/?’F A1GF? ’3*9E’1J) (H/F/ CG (G 1G(1J ED* .H/ (1’J 1G’JJ ’2 ?F?’D ’3*9E’1 ~1/’.*F/. FEHFGG’J A1’H’FJ ’2 ’JF EH’1/ 1’ EJ*H’F /1 E3*9E1’* ’F?DJ3 H A1’F3G J’A*. ’2 3HJ /J?1 F?’GJ (G A1’2 H F4J( ?1.4 B/1* /1 C4H1G’ (G .H(J F4’F EJ/G/ CG C4H1G’JJ CG 2E’FJ /1 ’H, B/1* 3J’3J  F8’EJ (H/F/  ~3 ’2 E/*J 3BH7 C1/F/ H /1 EB’(D C4H1G’JJ 3C’F B/1* 1’ /1 /3* ?1A*F/ CG 2E’FJ GJ? B/1*J /1 /3* F/’4F*/. /1 E/D3’2J ’JF H’B9G *’1J.J /1 ’D?H1J*E E91AJ 4/G (G ’JF 5H1* 9ED 4/G ’3* CG /1 -JF -1C* E3*9E1’* (G 3E* C4H1 ’3*9E’1?1  EECF ’3* (96J ’2 ’JF E3*9E1’* (G EHB9J*J (G*1 ’2 ’E~1J’DJ3* (13F/ ((G FB’7J /1 *’(9 G2JFG (13F/ CG G2JFG CE*1J 1’ F3(* (G EB/’1 *’(9 G2JFG /1 EHB9J* ’E~1J’DJ3*  *HDJ/ EJCFF/.) /1 ’JF -’D*  C4H1 ’3*9E’1?1 H C4H1 E3*9E1G  ,’J .H/ 1’ (’ GE/J?1 9H6 C1/G H ’D?H1J*E (’ C4H1 ’3*9E’1?1 /1 EHB9J* ,/J/ ’/’EG J’A*G H ’JF (’1 C4H1 ’E~1J’DJ3* ,/J/ ’3* CG 41H9 (G ’9E’D 3J’3* GE?HF3’2J (1 E3*9E1’* .H/ EJCF/. *:JJ1 ,’J ’3*9E’1?1 H E3*9E1G  /1 4CD 3-7 F4’F /’/G 4/G ’3*. /1 ’JF 4CD  (G*1JF E3*9E1GJ ’E~1’7H1J  CG G2JFG’J CE*1 ’2 .H/ ’E~1J’DJ3* /’1/  (G 1F? *J1G*1  F4’F /’/G 4/G ’3*. 4CD 3-6 CD ’E~1’7H1J 1’ ~3 ’2 *:JJ1 EHB9J*G’  F4’F EJ/G/.

4?D 3-6: *:??1 ,’? ’3*9E’1?1 H E3*E1G 4?D3-7: ?D ’E~1’7H1?  ~3 ’2 *:??1 EHB9?* G’

3-4-4-B/1* CD JC ’E~1’7H1J
B/1* JC ’E~1’7H1J (1’(1 ’3* (’ B/1* C4H1 ’3*9E’1?1  (G ’6’AG /15/J ’2 B/1* CD E3*9E1’* ”F. (/JF *1*J( (1’J G2JFG CD JC ’E~1’7H1J /’1JE:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4  QUOTE  
CG /1 ”F T C G2JFG CD ’E~1’7H1J n’E H ? 9//J E+(* ’3* CG E9EHD’K (JF 5A1 H JC H F2/JC (G 5A1 /1 F81 EMBED Equation.DSMT4  ?1A*G EJ4H/. CH?C /1 F81 ?1A*F ?  (’9+ EJ4H/ CG G2JFG CD JC ’E~1’7H1J  *B1J(’K (1’(1 (’ G2JFG -CHE* E1C2J ”F (C4H1’E~1J’DJ3*)  4H/ H ’A2’J4 ? FJ2 (’9+ ’A2’J4 *#+J1 EJ2’F G2JFG E3*9E1’* JC ’E~1’7H1J /1 *9JJF G2JFG CD ”F EJ4H/. /1 -’D* FH9J /1 ’C+1 ~J’/G3’2J (G ,H’(G’J E7DH(J EF,1 4/G ’3*.
3-4-5-1B’(* ’3*9E’1J
GE’F?HFG CG B(D’K FJ2 (J’F 4/  G1 ’E~1’7H1J CG F*H’F/ (1 B/1* .H/ (JA2’J/ H B/1* 1B’(* .H/ 1’ ’2 /3* (/G/  /1 ,1J’F 1B’(*G’J ’E~1J’DJ3*J  -0A .H’G/ 4/. ’JF -0A 4/F  (G 5H1* */1J,J 5H1* EJ~0J1/. (/JF E9FJ CG (G E1H1 2E’F  ’E~1’7H1JG’J 69JA  E3*9E1’* .H/ 1’ ’2 /3* /’/G H ’E~1’7H1JG’J BHJ*1  ’JF E3*9E1’* 1’ *5’-( C1/G H (1 B/1* .HJ4 EJ’A2’JF/. (1’J E/D C1/F ’JF H’B9J*  A16 EJCFJE CG ’E~1’7H1J /1 -’D -0A  69JA*1JF ’E~1’7H1J EH,H/ ’3*. (/JF *1*J(  /1 *C1’1 ’D?H1J*E  JCJ J’ ?F/ *’ ’2 69JA*1JF E3*9E1’* ’E~1’7H1J 1’ (1/’4*G H (1’J *5’-( ’JF E3*9E1’*  1B’(*J 1’ EJ’F CDJG ’E~1’7H1JG’ ’J,’/ EJCFJE. E3*9E1’* E0CH1  D2HE’K *H37 BHJ*1JF ’E~1’7H1J  *5’-( F.H’GF/ 4/  (DCG ’E~1’7H1JG’J BHJ*1  ’-*E’D *5’-( (J4*1J /’1F/. 4CD 4-8 4E’J CDJ ’JF (.4 ’2 ’D?H1J*E 1’ F4’F EJ/G/:

4?D3-8: 4E’? ?D? 1B’(* ’3*9E’1?: ’E~1’7H1? G’? (21?*1  (’ ’-*E’D (?4*1? E3*9E1’* ’E~1’7H1? G’? /??1 1’ *5’-( E? ?FF/.]35[
/1 ’JF 4CD ’E~1’7H1J 4E’1G 1 (G 9FH’F 69JA*1JF ’E~1’7H1J /1 F81 ?1A*G 4/G H JCJ ’2 E3*9E1’* ”F /1 E916 1B’(* ’E~1J’DJ3*J B1’1 ?1A*G ’3* H ’E~1’7H1JG’J 2 *’ N (1’J *5’-( ”’F (’ GE 1B’(* EJCFF/. (1’J E/D3’2J 1B’(* EJ’F ’E~1’7H1JG’ (1’J *5’-( ’JF E3*9E1’*  ’(*/’ ’-*E’D *5’-( G1 ’E~1’7H1J (CG E*F’3( (’ B/1* ”F ’E~1’7H1J EJ(’4/)  1’ (’ /1 F81 ?1A*F G2JFG CD ’E~1’7H1J  (G *1*J( 2J1 E-’3(G EJCFJE. ’(*/’ ’2 1HJ G2JFG CD ’E~1’7H1J  G2JFG CD F1E’DJ2G 4/G ”F 1’ *9JJF EJCFJE:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
/1 ’JF 1’(7G T.Cn G2JFG CD ’E~1’7H1J n’E Hn.t.cn FJ2  G2JFG CD F1E’DJ2G 4/G ”F ’E~1’7H1J EJ(’4/. G1 ’E~1’7H1J CG T.Cn CE*1J /’4*G (’4/ n.t.cn(?4*1? .H’G/ /’4* /1 -BJB* T.Cn E9’/D G2JFG CD JC ’E~1’7H1J H n.t.cn E9’/D B/1* CD ”F EJ(’4/. ’E~1’7H1J (’ CE*1JF G2JFG  /’1’J (J4*1JF B/1* ’3*. (’ /’4*F G2JFG CD F1E’DJ2G 4/G  ’-*E’D (B/1*) *5’-( E3*9E1G 1B’(*  *H37 G1 ’E~1’7H1J  (G 5H1* 2J1 E-’3(G EJ4H/:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
(’ /’4*F ’-*E’D *5’-( G1 ’E~1’7H1J  EC’FJ2EJ GE’FF/ ?1.G 1HD* /1 ’D?H1J*E ?F*JC EH1/ FJ’2 ’3* *’ E3*9E1G EH1/ 1B’(* 1’ (’ ’-*E’D E*F’3( (’ B/1* ’E~1’7H1JG’ /1 ’.*J’1 JCJ ’2 ”FG’ B1’1 /G/. /1 CF’1 ’EC’F ’3*A’/G ’2 ?1. 1HD* EH,H/  /1 ’JF FH4*’1 EC’FJ2E ,/J/J (1’J ~J’/G3’2J ’JF A1”JF/ E91AJ 4/G ’3* CG F3(* (G ?1.G 1HD* /’1’J G2JFG E-’3(’*J (3J’1 CE*1J EJ(’4/. 2J1’ 9EDJ’* F3(*’K 1’ CG /1 ?1.G 1HD* EH1/ FJ’2 ’3* 2 2J’/ E1(H7 (G E-’3(G *’(9 *H2J9 ,E9J ’-*E’D FJ’2 /’1/. /1 ’/’EG EC’FJ2E E71- 3 1’ -0A EJCF/ H AB7 (G /’4*F *’(9 ??’DJ ’-*E’D 4/G (1’J ’.*5’5 E*F’3( (’ ’-*E’D E3*9E1G EH1/ 1B’(* (G ’E~1’7H1J G’J 1BJ( *H6J- /’/G EJ4H/.
(’ /’4*F ’-*E’D *5’-( G1 ’E~1’7H1J  (1’J ’JFCG E3*9E1’* E0CH1 1’ (G 5H1* *5’/AJ  HDJ (’ ’-*E’D H’(3*G (G ’-*E’D *5’-( G1 ’E~1’7H1J  (JF ’E~1’7H1JG’ *B3JE CFJE (1/’1 P 1’ ’2 1HJ EB’/J1 ’-*E’D AHB  (G 5H1* 2J1 *4CJD EJ/GJE:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4  QUOTE  
(1/’1 P /’1’? 3’?2 1*Nimp E? (’4/ H ’2 EB’/?1 ’-*E’D *5’-( ’E~1’7H1? G’ *4??D 4/G ’3*. 3~3 (1/’1 *5’/A? R  GE3’?2 (’ (1/’1 P 1’ *4??D E? /G?E. ”1’?G G’? ’?F (1/’1  ’9/’/ *5’/A? R  GE3’?2 (’ (1/’1 P 1’ *4??D E? /G?E. ”1’?G G’? ’?F (1/’1  ’9/’/ *5’/A? (’ *H2?9 ??FH’.* /1 (’2G [0,1] E? (’4F/.
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4   QUOTE  
3~3 (1/’1 D 1’ (G 5H1* 2?1 *4??D E? /G?E:
 EMBED Equation.DSMT4  QUOTE  
(’ /’4*F (1/’1 D  E3*9E1’* E0CH1 1’ (G ’E~1’7H1JJ EJ/GJE CG ’F/J3 E1(H7 (G ”F /1 (1/’1 D (21?*1 ’2 (BJG EJ(’4/. ’E~1’7H1J’J CG (J4*1JF ’-*E’D *5’-( 1’/’4*G (’4/  (’ ’-*E’D (J4*1J ’F/J3 E1(H7 (G ”F /1 (1/’1 D  (J4*1JF EB/’1 1’ .H’G/ /’4*. 9/E FJ’2 (G E-’3(G CDF (’9+ EJ4H/ CG ’JF EC’FJ2E F3(* (G ?1.G 1HD* (’ 319* (G E1’*((J4*1J9EDCF/. EC’FJ2E ,/J/ E71- 4/G FG *FG’ EJ*H’F/ /1’.*5’5 E3*9E1G (G ’E~1’7H1J (1 -3( ’-*E’D *5’-( ”FG’ EAJ/ (’4/  (DCG (G9FH’F JC EC’FJ2E ’F*.’( (1 -3( ’-*E’D EJ*H’F/ ,’J?2JF ?1.G 1HD* /1’D?H1J*E ?F*JC (1’J ’F*.’( H’D/JF 4H/ H 319* ’,1’J 9EDJ’* /1 ”F 1’ *’ -/ 2J’/J ’A2’J4 /G/. (’ *5’-( E3*9E1G *H37 JCJ ’2 ’E~1’7H1J G’  9EDJ’* ’JF E1-DG ’2 ’D?H1J*E FJ2 (G ~’J’F EJ13/.
3-4-6-3BH7 ’E~1’7H1JG’J 69JA
’D?H1J*E EH1/ F81 *’ (1”H1/G 4/F JC 417 GE?1’JJ  H J’ *’ ’*E’E *9/’/ CD *C1’1G’  ’/’EG EJJ’(/. ~3 ’2 E/*J  GEG ’E~1’7H1JG’  3BH7 C1/G H *FG’ JC ’E~1’7H1J .H’GJE /’4* H (BJG C4H1G’ *-* CF*1D ’JF ’E~1’7H1J H’-/  B1’1 EJ?J1F/. /1 ’JF /FJ’J ’J/G”D ,/J/  GEGJ E3*9E1’*  *H37 JC ’E~1’7H1J H’-/ ’/’1G EJ4HF/ H EHB9J*G’ H G2JFGG’J E3*9E1’*  (1’(1 (’ EHB9J* H G2JFG C4H1 ’E~1J’DJ3* ’3*. /1 ’JF /FJ’J ,/J/  *A’H*J  FG *FG’  EJ’F E3*9E1’*  (DCG EJ’F E3*9E1’* H C4H1 ’E~1J’DJ3*  H,H/ F/’1/. (G 9(’1* /J?1  GEGJ C4H1G’  /1 9JF -’D  GE E3*9E1G H GE ’3*9E’1?1F/. /1 ?FJF EHB9J*J 1B’(* ’E~1J’DJ3*J (G ~’J’F 13J/G H (G 9FH’F JCJ ’2 41H7 *HBA ’D?H1J*E E*HBA EJ4H/. 4(G C/ E1(H7 (G ’D?H1J*E ~J4FG’/J /1 4CD 3 -9  F4’F /’/G 4/G ’3*.

4?D3-9: 3BH7 ’E~1’7H1? 4E’1G 4  (G 9D* ’2 /3* /’/F ?D?G E3*9E1’*4  /??1 B/1*? (1’? 1B’(* F/’1/ H (’?/ ’2 E?’F (B?G ’E~1’7H1? G’ -0A 4H/.
3-4-7-4(G ?/ E1(H7 (G ’D?H1?*E 1B’(* ’3*9E’1?
1.?F/ FB7G *5’/A? 1H? *’(9 ’F*.’( ?1/G H ’E~1’7H1? G’? ’HD?G 1’ *4??D /G?/.
2.E3*9E1’* (G 3E* ?4H1 ’E~1?’D?3* -1?* /G?/ ( GE3’F 3’2? E3*9E1’*).
3.’?1 E3*9E1G ’? /1 ’E~1’7H1? H,H/ /’4*G (’4/ ?G G2?FG ? ?E*1 ’2 ’E~1?’D?3* /’4*G (’4/  ,’? E3*9E1G H ’E~1?’D?3* 1’ (’ GE 9H6 ?F?/.
4.G2?FG ? ?D ?? ’E~1’*H1? 1’ -3’( ?F?/.((’ /1 F81 ?1A*F G2?FG ? ’E~1?’D?3* H E3*9E1’*4’F)
5. ?? E3*9E1G ’2 69?A *1?F ’E~1’7H1? ’F*.’( ?1/G H ”F 1’ (G ’E~1’7H1? ’? ?G (?4*1?F ’-*E’D *5’-( 1’ /’1/  (/G?/.
6. ’E~1’7H1? G’? 69?A 1’ -0A ?F?/.
7.’?1 *FG’ ?? ’E~1’7H1? (’B? E’F/G (’4/  *HBA ?F?/ H ?1FG (G 2 (1H?/.








A5D ?G’1E
F*’?, 4(?G 3’2?







4- EB/EG
/1 ’?F A5D ’2 ~’?’FF’EG F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 4(?G3’2? /1 F1E ’A2’1 E*D( ”H1/G 4/G ’3*. (/?F EF8H1 ’2 ’D?H1?*E 1B’(* ’3*9E’1? ’3*A’/G ?1/?E *’ (’ *9??F EB/’1 (G?FG ~’1’E*1G’? 3DHD .H14?/?  E/D? /B?B ’2 ”F /’4*G (’4?E *’ .7’? F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 E/D 4(?G3’2? 4/G H F*’?, H’B9? /’1’? -/’BD .7’ (’4F/. E/DG’? 3DHD .H14?/? ?G EH1/ ’3*A’/G B1’1 ?1A*G’F/  E/D *? /?H/ H E/D /H /?H/ E?(’4F/ ?G (1’? E/D *? /?H/  ’D?H1?*E (’?3*? ~F, ~’1’E*1 H (1’? E/D /H /?H/ GA* ~’1’E*1 1’ *9??F ?F/. (1’? *6E?F 5-* E/D (/3* ”E/G  F*’?, -’5DG ’2 4(?G 3’2? 1’ (’ F*’?, 3’?1 ’D?H1?*EG’ EH1/ EB’?3G B1’1 ?1A*G ’3*.
4-1- F?’G? ?D? (1 1H4 (G?FG 3’2?
G/A ’2 (G?FG3’2? ”F ’3* ?G (’ ?? ’D?H1?*E (G -D E3&DG (~1/’2?E. E3&DG E’ ?’A*F ~’1’E*1G’? E,GHD 3DHD .H14?/? ’3*. ~’1’E*1G’? E,GHD ?G GE’F E*:?1G’? ’D?H1?*E E?(’4F/ 1’ E?*H’F (1’? /H E/D /H /?H/? H *? /?H/? (G 5H1* 1’(7G 4-1 H 4-2 ,/’ ?1/.
(4-1)  QUOTE  
(4-2)  QUOTE  
E-/H/G *:??1’* G1 ?? ’2 ’?F ~’1’E*1G’ /1 ,/HD (4-1) ”H1/G 4/G ’3*(36(:
,/HD 4-1: E-/H/G ~’1’E*1G’? E,GHD 3DHD .H14?/?
UpperLowerParameter0.50Rs(&!)1000Rsh(&!)10Iph(A)10Isd(?A)21N
4-1-1- *’(9 G/A
*’(9 G/A (1’? 3?3*E *? /?H/? (G 5H1* 1’(7G (4-3) H (1’? 3?3*E /H /?H/? (G A1E 1’(7G (4-4) E?(’4/:
 QUOTE   (4-3)
 QUOTE   (4-4)
/1 1H’(7 AHB q EB/’1 (’1 ’D?*1HF  T /E’? 3DHD .H14?/? (1 -3( ?DH?F H K F?2 +’(* (HD*2EF ’3* ?G EB/’1 ”FG’ (G 5H1* 2?1 ’3*:
,/HD 4-2: EB’/?1 +’(* /1 1H’(7 3DHD .H14?/?[36]
1.602e-19q (c)306T (ok)1.380650e-23K
-’D ’?1 EB/’1 HD*’? H ,1?’F 1’ ’2 ”2E’?4 9ED? H EB/’1 ~’1’E*1 G’? (/3* ”E/G ’2 ’D?H1?*E 1’ /1 1’(7GG’? (4-3) H (4-4) ,’??2?F ?F?E  *’(9  QUOTE   EB/’1 .7’? E-’3(’*? 1’ ?G (?F F*’?, 9ED? H F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 ’D?H1?*E 1’ F4’F E?/G/.
(’ ’3*A’/G ’2 1H’(7 (4-5) H (4-6) E?*H’F EB/’1 .7’ 1’ (1’? ”2E’?4’* E.*DA (1’? ?? 31? ’2 ~’1’E*1G’? 3DHD .H14?/? (/3* ”H1?E. ?9F? ’?1 (G ’2’? ~’1’E*1 G’? E,GHD 3DHD .H14?/? EB/’1? E4.5 B1’1 /G?E (G *9/’/ ”2E’?4G’? 9ED? (F*’?, 9ED?) EB/’1 f H,H/ /’1/ ?G E?*H’F (’ ’3*A’/G ’2 1?4G /HE E,EH9 E1(9 .7’G’ E4.5 ?1/ ?G ”?’ ,H’( EH1/ F81 E7DH( ’3* ?’ .?1. 1’(7G RMSE (’ ’?F 5H1* ’3*:
(4-5)  QUOTE  
?G /1 1’(7G AHB N *9/’/ ”2E’?4 ’F,’E 4/G H ?’ *9/’/ FEHFGG’? HD*’? H ,1?’F .1H,? 3DHD .H14?/? ’3*. /1 -’D* ?D? E?*H’F ?A* ?G (G ’2’? G1 31? ’2 EB’/?1 ~’1’E*1G’? 3DHD .H14?/? ?G RMSE?E*1? /’4*G (’4/  EB/’1 HD*’? H ,1?’F (/3* ”E/G ’2 ’D?H1?*E (G EB/’1 HD*’? H ,1?’F *1E?F’D 3DHD .H14?/? ?G ’2 ”2E’?4 (/3* ”E/G ’3*  F2/?? *1 ’3*. ~3 1’(7G (4-5) E? *H’F/ ?? *’(9 G/A EH1/ B(HD (’4/ H G/A ’D?H1?*E E?F?EE ?1/F ’?F *’(9 ’3*. ’D(*G /1 (96? EB’D’* (G E?’F??F ’F/’2G ? .7’ G’ (MAE) F?2 ’4’1G 4/G ’3*.
MAE /1 H’B9 GE’F E?’F??F .7’? E7DB ’3* ?G /1 2?1 1’(7G ”F1’ E4’G/G E??F?/.
(4-6)  QUOTE  
?G /1 ”F  QUOTE   (G 5H1* 2?1 *91?A E? ?1//:
(4-7)  QUOTE  
4-2- E4.5’* 3DHD .H14?/? EH1/ ’3*A’/G
3DHD .H14?/? ?G /1 ’?F (G?FG 3’2? ’3*A’/G 4/  ?? E/D a 57 mm diameter commercial (R.T.C. France) silicon solar cell ’3* ?G ?? E/D 1’?, ’3*. F*’?, ”2E’?4 9ED? 4’ED HD*’? H ,1?’F *1E?F’D 3DHD .H14?/? ’3* ?G /1 under 1 sun (1000 W/m2) at 33 oC (/3* ”E/G ’3*(36(. EB/’1 HD*’? H ,1?’F *1E?F’D 3DHD .H14?/? EH1/ F81 1’ /1 26 EB/’1 E.*DA /1 ,/HD 2?1 E4’G/G E? ?F?/.




,/HD 4-3: F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 ”2E’?4’* 9ED?
It (Amper)Vt (Volt)0.7640-0.205710.7620-0.129120.7605-0.058830.76050.005740.76000.064650.75900.118560.75700.167870.75700.213280.75550.254590.75400.2924100.75050.3269110.74650.3585120.73850.3873130.72800.4137140.70650.4373150.67550.4590160.63200.4784170.57300.4960180.49900.5119190.41300.5265200.31650.5398210.21200.5521220.10350.563323-0.01000.573624-0.12300.583325-0.21000.5900264-3- F*’?, (G?FG 3’2?
~3 ’2 E91A? E/DG’? 3DHD .H14?/? H 1H’(7 E1(H7 (G ”F  ’2 ’D?H1?*E (G?FG3’2? 1B’(* ’3*9E’1? (1’? *9??F ~’1’E*1G’? E,GHD E/D 3DHD .H14?/? ’3*A’/G ?1/?E. /1 ’/’EG F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 4(?G3’2? ”H1/G 4/G ’3*.
4-3-1- F*’?, (G?FG 3’2? (1’? E/D /H /?H/?
(G /D?D ”F?G (.4? ’2 A1’?F/ (G?FG3’2? *H37 ’D?H1?*EG’ (G 5H1* *5’/A? ’F,’E E?~0?1/  (G ’D?H1?*E ’,’2G /’/?E ?G (G *9/’/ ~F, /A9G ’,1’ 4H/. F*’?, -’5DG ’2 4(?G 3’2? /1 ,/HD (4-4) .D’5G 4/G ’3*.
,/HD 4-4: F*’?, ~F, /A9G ’,1’? ’D?H1?*E (1’? E/D /H /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/?
*?1’1 ’HD*?1’1 /HE *?1’1 3HE*?1’1 ?G’1E*?1’1 ~F,ERs0.036380.036470.036460.036510.03643Rsh53.812453.762554.124753.497152.9472Iph0.76070.76070.76070.76080.7608Isd17.52e-72.64e-76.14e-76.71e-71.23e-7Isd22.48e-72.25e-72.50e-72.54e-71.94e-7n11.47161.74561.43481.87511.4765n21.52341.47651.48231.45141.4720RMSE9.85e-49.86e-49.84e-49.83e-49.87e-4
(G*1?F ~’3. (/3* ”E/G 9.83e-4 H (/*1?F ,H’( 9.87e-4 E?(’4/. E?’F??F RMSE (1’? ~F, /A9G ’,1’? (1F’EG (1’(1 (’ 9.85e-4 E?(’4/. /1 ,/HD (4-5) F*’?, (/3* ”E/G *H37 3’?1 ’D?H1?*EG’ (1’? E/D /H /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/? ”H1/G 4/G ’3*.
,/HD 4-5: EB’?3G F*’?, ’D?H1?*E G’? E.*DA /1 E/D /H /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/? [36]
R sR shI phI sd1I sd2n1n2RMSEHS0.354546.826960.761760.125450.25471.494391.499891.26e-3GGHS0.0356262.78990.760560.370140.135041.496381.929981.07e-3IGHS0.036956.83680.760790.97310.167911.921261.428149.86e-4SA0.034543.10340.76230.47670.011.517221.66e-2PS0.03281.30080.76020.98890.00011.61.1921.52e-2
(’ EB’?3G F*’?, ,/’HD (4-4) H (4-5) E?*H’F /1 EH1/ 9ED?1/ ’D?H1?*EG’ F81 /’/. (1 ’?F ’3’3 E?*H’F ?A* ?G ’D?H1?*E ICA /’1’? (G*1?F ,H’( H ~3 ’2 ”F IGHS H MAPSO /’1’? ~’3. G’? EF’3(*1? F3(* (G 3’?1 ’D?H1?*EG’ E?(’4F/. /1 4?D (4-1)  EB/’1 RMSE -’5D ’2 ’D?H1?*E G’ (G 5H1* FEH/’1 E?DG’? F4’F /’/G 4/G ’3*.

4?D 4-1: FEH/’1 E?DG’? RMSE (/3* ”E/G *H37 ’D?H1?*EG’? E.*DA /1 E/D /H /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/?
(’ F?’G? (G 4?D (4-1) E?*H’F ?A* ?G ’D?H1?*E ICA /’1’1? -/’BD E?2’F .7’ 1’ /’1’ E?(’4/ H ’?F (/’F E9F’3* ?G ’D?H1?*E *H’F3*G ’3* E/D 3DHD .H14?/? (’ /B* (’D’*1? ’1’&G /G/. /1 4?D (4-2) H (4-3) EB’?3G’? (?F F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 E/D ~?4FG’/? *H37 ’D?H1?*E ICA H EB’/?1 H’B9? 3DHD .H14?/? /’1?E. (/?F EF8H1 ,1?’F H HD*’? (1’? 26 -’D* ’F/’2G??1? 4/G E-’3(G ?1/?E.

4?D 4-2: EB’?3G ,1?’F *1E?F’D (/3* ”E/G ’2 ”2E’?4 9ED? H 4(?G 3’2?

4?D 4-3: EB’?3G *H’F .1H,? 3DHD .H14?/? (/3* ”E/G ’2 ”2E’?4 9ED? H 4(?G 3’2?
4-3-2- F*’?, (G?FG 3’2? (1’? E/D *? /?H/?
(1’? E/D *? /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/? (G E4’(G E/D /H /?H/? 9ED E??F?E. (/?F EF8H1 (’ ’3*A’/G ’2 ’D?H1?*E 1B’?* ’3*9E’1? (G /F(’D *9??F ~F, ~’1’E*1 EH1/ F81 /1 E/D *? /?H/? E?(’4?E. GE’FF/ B3E* B(D (G ’D?H1?*E ’,’2G E?/G?E (G *9/’/ ~F, /A9G ’,1’ 4H/. F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 ’?F *?1’1G’ /1 ,/HD (4-6) ”H1/G 4/G ’3*.
,/HD 4-6: F*’?, ’D?H1?*E ICA (1’? E/D *? /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/?
*?1’1 ’HD*?1’1 /HE*?1’1 3HE*?1’1 ?G’1E*?1’1 ~F,ER s0.036410.036470.036510.036420.03637R sh52.751453.124553.754153.712153.6824I ph0.76060.76080.76070.76070.76077I sd3.13e-73.17e-73.21e-73.19e-73.22e-7N1.4811.4811.4831.4821.480RMSE9.87e-49.86e-49.85e-49.86e-49.86e-4
-/’?+1 EB/’1 RMSE (1’? E/D *? /?H/? (1’(1 (’ 9.87e-4 H -/’BD ’?F EB/’1 (1’(1 (’ 9.85e-4 ’3*. E?’F??F ~F, /A9G ’,1’? (1F’EG (1’(1 (’ 9.86e-4 E?(’4/. (1’? E/D *? /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/?  F*’?, (/3* ”E/G ’2 ?F/ ’D?H1?*E /??1 /1 ,/HD (4-7) ”H1/G 4/G ’3*.
,/HD 4-7: EB’?3G F*’?, ’D?H1?*EG’? E.*DA /1 E/D /H /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/? [36]
RsRshI phI sdNRMSEHS0.0366353.59460.76070.304951.475389.95e-4GGHS0.0363153.06470.760920.32621.482179.91e-4IGHS0.361353.28450.760770.343511.48749.93e-4SA0.034543.10340.7620.47981.51721.90e-2PS0.031364.10260.76170.9981.61.49e-2GA0.029942.37290.76190.80871.57511.91e-2CPSO0.035459.0120.76070.41.50331.39e-3
(1’? EB’?3G (G*1 F*’?,  EB/’1 RMSE (/3* ”E/G *H37 ’D?H1?*EG’? E.*DA (G 5H1* FEH/’1 E?DG’? /1 4?D (4-4) ”H1/ 4/G ’3*.

4?D 4-4: EB’?3G RMSE ’D?H1?*E G’ /1 E/D *? /?H/? 3DHD .H14?/?
(’ *H,G (G 4?D (4-4) E?*H’F ?A*  ?G ’D?H1?*E 1B’(* ’3*9E’1? GE’FF/ E/D *? /?H/? (G F3(* 3’?1 1H4G’ /’1’? -/’BD E?’F??F .7’ E?(’4/. ’?F EB/’1 (1’? ’D?H1?*E ICA (1’(1 (’ 9.85e-4 E?(’4/.
~3 ’2 (G?FG3’2? *H37 ’D?H1?*E 1B’(* ’3*9E’1? H (/3* ”H1/F E*:??1G’ E/D *? /?H/?  F*’?, (/3* ”E/G 1’ /1 E/D 4(?G3’2? 4/G B1’1 /’/G’?E H H ,1?’F H *H’F 3DHD .H14?/? 1’ E-’3(G ?1/?E. 3~3 F*’?, (/3* ”E/G 1’ (’ F*’?, ”2E’?4 9ED? EB’?3G ?1/?E. EB’?3G F*’?, /1 4?D (4-5) H (4-6) F4’F /’/G 4/G ’F/. (’ (113? ’?F F*’?, E?*H’F (G /B* (’D’? ’D?H1?*E /1 ’1’&G E/D 3DHD .H14?/? ~? (1/  2?1’ F*’?, (’ ?E*1?F E?2’F .7’ H *B1?(’K E4’(G F*’?, ’F/’2G??1? 4/G E?(’4F/.


4?D 4-5: EB’?3G ,1?’F *1E?F’D (/3* ”E/G ’2 ”2E’?4 9ED? H 4(?G 3’2?

4?D4-6: EB’?3G *H’F .1H,? 3DHD .H14?/? (/3* ”E/G ’2 ”2E’?4 9ED? H 4(?G 3’2?


4-4- FB7G (?4?FG *H’F 3DHD .H14?/?
??? ’2 ?’1(1/G’? EB’/?1 -’5DG ’2 (G?FG3’2?  (G /3* ”H1/F FB7G (?4?FG *H’F 3DHD .H14?/? ’3*. ,/HD (4-8) FB7G (?4?FG *H’F 3DHD .H14?/? 1’ (1’? /H E/D *? /?H/? H /H /?H/? F4’F E? /G/. E4’G/G E?4H/ ?G /H E.*5’* (/3* ”E/G F2/?? (G ??/??1 E?(’4F/ ?G ’?F .H/ F4’F ’2 /B* ?’A? H EF’3( ~’1’E*1G’? (/3* ”E/G ’2 ’D?H1?*E ICA ’3*.
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Abstract
Due to inevitable and growing need for electricity to be used for residential, commercial, public, industrial and renewable energies as well as closer to the end of fossil fuels, using Energy such as solar energy to produce solar power as an alternative energy has been taken account. Solar power is a clean energy and environmental impacts, and emitting no greenhouse gases. Renewable energy sources for use in solar cells are one of the most enjoy systems that convert directly solar energy into electrical energy. One of the main issues in this context is the accurate modeling of these cells. Parameters must be identified so that has overlapped the model results with measured data from real systems.In this thesis of Imperialist competitive algorithm to identify parameters of solar cells and minimizing the mean error is used. For this purpose, the single diode and diode solar cells are taken account. After finding the optimal model of the solar cell, the results of the simulations were compared with the results of other algorithms. Simulation results show the good performance Imperialist competitive algorithm to find the exact model of the Sun cells. The obtained model is similar to real solar cells. Then the maximum amount of solar cell can be modeled in different environmental conditions were calculated. The maximum amount of power in a single diode and diode model has almost the same results.








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 Grid Connected System
 Photovoltaic
 Power Voltage System









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 PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1







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Charge Controller

PV Array

Inverter

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